IoT Models

Despite of the chanllenges, various models have been established to describe IoT systems.

Generally speaking, an IoT system can be described by a three-level model: the "Things", the communication networks, and the Cloud.

The most popular model is the CISCO IoT Reference Model which comes from industry. It is primarily a model from the networking perspective.

The other is the IOT-A family of models which describe the IoT architecture from the functional perspective, or from the object- oriented design perspective.